In medicineHippocrates c. America — BC was read more first to base his conclusions on dissection of the human body and to describe the nervous system. In Hellenistic Egyptthe mathematician Euclid laid down the foundations of mathematical rigor and introduced the concepts of definition, axiom, theorem and proof still in use today in his ElementsLatina the most influential textbook ever written.
Theophrastus wrote some of the earliest descriptions of plants and animals, historia, establishing the first taxonomy and looking at minerals in terms of their properties such as America. Pliny the Elder produced what is Williamson of the largest encyclopedias of the natural world in 77 AD, and must be regarded as the rightful successor to Theophrastus.
For example, he accurately describes the octahedral shape of the diamondand proceeds to mention that diamond dust see more used Latina engravers to cut and polish other gems Williamson to its great hardness. His recognition of the importance of crystal shape is a precursor to modern crystallographywhile mention this web page numerous other minerals presages mineralogy.
He also recognises that other minerals have characteristic crystal shapes, but in one example, A historia da America Latina de Edwin Williamson, confuses the crystal habit Edwin the work of lapidaries. He was click the first to recognise that amber was a fossilized resin from pine trees because he had seen samples with trapped insects within them.
The earliest traces of Edwin knowledge in the Indian subcontinent appear with the Indus Valley Civilization c. The people of this civilization made bricks whose dimensions were in historia proportion 4: They designed a ruler—the Mohenjo-daro ruler —whose unit of length approximately 1.
Bricks manufactured in ancient Mohenjo-daro often had dimensions that were integral multiples of this unit of length. Indian astronomer and mathematician Aryabhata —in his Aryabhatiya introduced a number of trigonometric functions including sineversinecosine and inverse sinetrigonometric tablesand techniques and algorithms of algebra.
In AD, Brahmagupta suggested that gravity was a force of attraction. Arabic translations of the two astronomers' texts were soon available in the Islamic worldintroducing what would become Arabic numerals to the Islamic World by the 9th century. In particular, Madhava of Sangamagrama is considered the "founder of mathematical analysis ".
The first textual mention of astronomical concepts comes from the Vedasreligious literature of India. The 13 chapters of the second part cover the nature of the sphere, as well as significant astronomical and trigonometric calculations based on it. Nilakantha Somayaji 's astronomical treatise the Tantrasangraha similar in nature to the Tychonic system proposed by Tycho Brahe had been the most accurate astronomical model until the time of Johannes Kepler in the 17th century.
Some of the earliest linguistic activities can be found in Iron Age India 1st millennium BC with the analysis of Sanskrit for the purpose of the correct recitation and interpretation of Vedic texts. Inherent in his analytic approach are the concepts of the phonemethe morpheme and the root. Findings from Neolithic graveyards in what is now Pakistan show evidence of proto-dentistry among an early farming culture. The wootzcrucible and stainless steels were invented in India, and were widely exported in Classic Mediterranean world.
It was known from Pliny the Elder as ferrum indicum. Indian Wootz steel was held in high regard in Roman Empire, was often considered to be the best. After in Middle Age it was imported in Syria to produce with special techniques the " Damascus steel " by the year The Hindus excel in the manufacture of iron, and in the preparations of those ingredients along with which it is fused to obtain that kind of soft iron which is usually styled Indian steel Hindiah.
They also have workshops wherein are forged the most famous sabres in the world. From the earliest the Chinese used a positional decimal system on counting boards in order to calculate.
To express 10, a single rod is placed in the second box from the right. The spoken language uses a similar system to English: No symbol was used for zero. By the 1st century BC, negative numbers and decimal fractions were in use and The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art included methods for extracting higher order roots by Horner's method and solving linear equations and by Pythagoras' theorem.
Cubic equations were solved in the Tang dynasty and solutions of equations of order higher than 3 appeared in print in AD by Ch'in Chiu-shao. Pascal's triangle for binomial coefficients was described around by Jia Xian. Although the first attempts at an axiomatisation of geometry appear in the Mohist canon in BC, Liu Hui developed algebraic methods in geometry in the 3rd century AD and also calculated pi to 5 significant figures.
Astronomical observations from China constitute the longest continuous sequence from any civilisation and include records of sunspots records from BCsupernovaslunar and solar eclipses. By the 12th century, they could reasonably accurately make predictions of eclipses, but the knowledge of this was lost during the Ming dynasty, so that the Jesuit Matteo Ricci gained much favour in by his predictions.
From antiquity, the Chinese used an equatorial system for describing the skies and a star map from was drawn using a cylindrical Mercator projection.
The use of an armillary sphere is recorded from the 4th century BC and a sphere permanently mounted in equatorial axis from 52 BC. In AD Zhang Edwin used water power to rotate the sphere in real time. This included rings for the meridian and ecliptic. By they had incorporated Edwin principles of the Arab torquetum. To better prepare for calamities, Zhang Heng invented a seismometer in CE which provided instant alert to authorities in the capital Luoyang that an earthquake had occurred in a location indicated by a specific cardinal or ordinal direction.
Williamson are many notable contributors to the field of Chinese science throughout historia ages. One of the best examples America be Shen Kuo —a polymath scientist and statesman who was the first to describe the magnetic -needle compass used for navigationdiscovered the concept of true northimproved the design of the astronomical gnomonarmillary spheresight tubeand Williamsonand described the use of drydocks to repair boats.
After observing the America process of the inundation of silt and the find of marine fossils in the Taihang Mountains hundreds of miles from the Pacific OceanShen Kuo devised a theory of land formation, or geomorphology. He also adopted a theory of gradual climate change in regions over time, after observing petrified bamboo found underground Latina Yan'anShaanxi province.
If not for Shen Kuo's writing,  the architectural works of Yu Hao would be little known, along with the inventor of movable type printingLatina, Bi Sheng — Shen's contemporary Su Song — was also a brilliant polymath, an astronomer who created Latina celestial atlas of star maps, wrote a pharmaceutical treatise with related subjects of Williamsonhistoria, zoologymineralogyand metallurgyand had erected a large astronomical clocktower in Kaifeng city in To operate the crowning armillary spherehis clocktower featured an escapement mechanism and the world's oldest known use of an endless power-transmitting chain drive.
The Jesuit China missions of the 16th and 17th centuries "learned to appreciate the scientific achievements of this ancient culture and made them known in Europe. Through their correspondence European scientists first learned about the Chinese science and culture. Among the technological accomplishments of China were, according to the British scholar Needham, early seismological detectors Zhang Heng in the 2nd Latinathe water-powered celestial globe Zhang Americamatchesthe independent invention of the decimal systemdry docks Edwin, sliding calipersthe double-action piston pumpcast ironthe blast furnacethe iron ploughWilliamson multi-tube seed drillthe wheelbarrowthe suspension bridgethe winnowing machinethe rotary fanWilliamson parachutenatural gas as fuel, the raised-relief maphistoria propellerthe crossbowand a solid fuel rocketthe this web page rocketthe horse collaralong with contributions in logicastronomymedicineand other fields.
America, cultural factors prevented these Chinese achievements from developing into what we might call "modern science". According to Needham, it may have been the religious and philosophical framework of Chinese Edwin which made them unable to accept the ideas of laws of nature:, Williamson.
It was not that there was no order in nature for the Chinese, but rather that it was not an order ordained by a rational personal being, and hence there was no conviction that rational personal beings would be able to spell out in their America earthly languages the divine code of laws which Williamson had decreed Latina. The Taoistsindeed, would have scorned such an idea as being too naïve for the subtlety and complexity of the universe as they intuited it.
In the Middle EastGreek philosophy was able to Edwin some support under the newly created Arab Empire. With the spread of Islam in the 7th and historia centuries, a period of Muslim scholarship, known as the Islamic Golden Agehistoria, lasted until the 13th century.
This scholarship was aided by several factors. The use of a single language, ArabicEdwin, allowed communication without need of a translator. Access to Greek texts from the Byzantine Empirealong with Williamson sources of learning, provided Muslim scholars a knowledge base to build upon. While the Byzantine Empire still held learning centers such as ConstantinopleWestern Europe's knowledge was historia in monasteries until the development of medieval universities in the 12th and 13th centuries.
The curriculum Latina monastic schools included the study of the few available ancient texts and of new works on practical subjects like medicine  and timekeeping. Scientific method began developing in the Muslim world, where significant progress in methodology was made, beginning with the experiments of Ibn al-Haytham Alhazen on optics from c.
Ibn al-Haytham is also regarded as the father of optics, especially for his empirical proof of the intromission theory of light. Some have also described Ibn al-Haytham as the "first scientist" for his development of the modern scientific method. In mathematicsthe mathematician Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi c. In astronomyAl-Battani c. Al-Battani also improved the precision of the measurement of the precession of the Earth's axis.
Muslim chemists and alchemists played an important role in the foundation of modern chemistry. Scholars such as Will Durant  and Fielding H. Garrison  considered Muslim chemists to be the founders of chemistry. Ibn Sina Avicennac. Amongst his many contributions are the discovery of the contagious nature of infectious diseases,  and the introduction of clinical pharmacology. Islamic science began its decline in the 12th or 13th century, before the Renaissance in Europe, and due in part to the 11th—13th century Mongol conquestsduring which libraries, observatories, hospitals and universities were destroyed.
An intellectual revitalization of Europe started with the birth of medieval universities in the 12th century. European scholars had access to the translation programs of Raymond of Toledowho sponsored the 12th century Toledo School of Translators from Arabic to Latin. Later translators like Michael Scotus would learn Arabic in order to study these texts directly. The European universities aided materially in the translation and propagation of these texts and started a new infrastructure which was needed for scientific communities.
In fact, European university put many works about the natural world and the study of nature at the center of its curriculum,  with the result that the "medieval university laid far greater emphasis on science than does its modern counterpart and descendent. As well as this, Europeans began to venture further and further east most notably, perhaps, Marco Polo as a result of the Pax Mongolica.
This led to the increased awareness of Indian and even Chinese culture and civilization within the European tradition. Technological advances were also made, such as the early flight of Eilmer of Malmesbury who had studied Mathematics in 11th century England and the metallurgical achievements of the Cistercian blast furnace at Laskill. At the beginning of the 13th century, there were reasonably accurate Latin translations of the main works of almost all the intellectually crucial ancient authors, allowing a sound transfer of scientific ideas via both the universities and the monasteries.
By then, the natural philosophy contained in these texts began to be extended by notable scholastics such as Robert GrossetesteRoger BaconAlbertus Magnus and Duns Scotus. Precursors of the modern scientific method, influenced by earlier contributions of the Islamic world, can be seen already in Grosseteste's emphasis on mathematics as a way to understand nature, and in the empirical approach admired by Bacon, particularly in his Opus Majus.
Pierre Duhem 's provocative thesis of the Catholic Church's Condemnation of led to the study of medieval science as a serious discipline, "but no one in the field any longer endorses his view that modern science started in ". The first half of the 14th century saw much important scientific work being done, largely within the framework of scholastic commentaries on Aristotle's scientific writings.
In particular, Buridan developed the theory that impetus was the cause of the motion of projectiles, which was a first step towards the modern concept of inertia. Inthe Black Death and other disasters sealed a sudden end to the previous period of massive philosophic and scientific development. Yet, the rediscovery of ancient texts was improved after the Fall of Constantinople inwhen many Byzantine scholars had to seek refuge in the West.
Meanwhile, the introduction of printing was to have great effect on European society. The facilitated dissemination of the printed word democratized learning and allowed a faster propagation of new ideas.
New ideas also helped to influence the development of European science at this point: These developments paved the way for the Scientific Revolutionwhich may also be understood as a resumption of the process of scientific inquiry, halted at the start of the Black Death. The renewal of learning in Europe, that began with 12th century Scholasticismcame to an end about the time of the Black Death, and the initial period of the subsequent Italian Renaissance is sometimes seen as a lull in scientific activity.
The Northern Renaissanceon the other hand, showed a decisive shift in focus from Aristoteleian natural philosophy to chemistry and the biological sciences botany, anatomy, and medicine. Thus, a suitable environment was created in which it became possible to question scientific doctrine, in much the same way that Martin Luther and John Calvin questioned religious doctrine. The works of Ptolemy astronomy and Galen medicine were found not always to match everyday observations. Work by Vesalius on human cadavers found problems with the Galenic view of anatomy.
The willingness to question previously held truths and search for new answers resulted in a period of major scientific advancements, now known as the Scientific Revolution. The Scientific Revolution is traditionally held by most historians to have begun inwhen the books De humani corporis fabrica On the Workings of the Human Body by Andreas Vesaliusand also De Revolutionibusby the astronomer Nicolaus Copernicuswere first printed.
The thesis of Copernicus' book was that the Earth moved around the Sun. The scientific method was also better developed as the modern way of thinking emphasized experimentation and reason over traditional considerations.
The Age of Enlightenment was a European affair. The 17th century brought decisive steps towards modern science, which accelerated during the 18th century. Directly based on the works  of NewtonDescartesPascal and Leibnizthe way was now clear to the development of modern mathematicsphysics and technology by the generation of Benjamin Franklin —Leonhard Euler —Mikhail Lomonosov — and Jean le Rond d'Alembert — Denis Diderot 's Encyclopédiepublished between and brought this new understanding to a wider audience.
The impact of this process was not limited to science and technology, but affected philosophy Immanuel KantDavid Humereligion the increasingly significant impact of science upon religionand society and politics in general Adam SmithVoltaire. The early modern period is seen as a flowering of the European Renaissance, in what is often known as the Scientific Revolutionviewed as a foundation of modern science. The Romantic Movement of the early 19th century reshaped science by opening up new pursuits unexpected in the classical approaches of the Enlightenment.
Major breakthroughs came in biology, especially in Darwin's theory of evolutionas well as physics electromagnetismmathematics non-Euclidean geometry, group theory and chemistry organic chemistry.
The decline of Romanticism occurred because a new movement, Positivismbegan to take hold of the ideals of the intellectuals after and lasted until about The scientific revolution established science as a source for the growth of knowledge. As the role of scientific knowledge grew in society, it became incorporated with many aspects of the functioning of nation-states. The scientific revolution is a convenient boundary between ancient thought and classical physics.
Nicolaus Copernicus revived the heliocentric model of the solar system described by Aristarchus of Samos. This was followed by the first known model of planetary motion given by Johannes Kepler in the early 17th century, which proposed that the planets follow elliptical orbits, with the Sun at one focus of the ellipse. Galileo " Father of Modern Physics " also made use of experiments to validate physical theories, a key element of the scientific method.
William Gilbert did some of the earliest experiments with electricity and magnetism, establishing that the Earth itself is magnetic. InIsaac Newton published the Principia Mathematicadetailing two comprehensive and successful physical theories: Newton's laws of motionwhich led to classical mechanics; and Newton's Law of Gravitationwhich describes the fundamental force of gravity. During the late 18th and early 19th century, the behavior of electricity and magnetism was studied by Luigi GalvaniGiovanni AldiniAlessandro VoltaMichael FaradayGeorg Ohmand others.
These studies led to the unification of the two phenomena into a single theory of electromagnetismby James Clerk Maxwell known as Maxwell's equations. The beginning of the 20th century brought the start of a revolution in physics. The long-held theories of Newton were shown not to be correct in all circumstances.
Beginning inMax PlanckAlbert EinsteinNiels Bohr and others developed quantum theories to explain various anomalous experimental results, by introducing discrete energy levels. Not only did quantum mechanics show that the laws of motion did not hold on small scales, but even more disturbingly, the theory of general relativityproposed by Einstein inshowed that the fixed background of spacetimeon which both Newtonian mechanics and special relativity depended, could not exist.
InWerner Heisenberg and Erwin Schrödinger formulated quantum mechanicswhich explained the preceding quantum theories. The observation by Edwin Hubble in that the speed at which galaxies recede positively correlates with their distance, led to the understanding that the universe is expanding, and the formulation of the Big Bang theory by Georges Lemaître.
In Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann discovered nuclear fission with radiochemical methods, and in Lise Meitner and Otto Robert Frisch wrote the first theoretical interpretation of the fission process, which was later improved by Niels Bohr and John A. Further developments took place during World War II, which led to the practical application of radar and the development and use of the atomic bomb.
Around this time, historia, Chien-Shiung Wu was Williamson by the Manhattan Project to help Latina a process for separating uranium metal into U and U isotopes by Gaseous diffusion. Though the process had begun with the America of the cyclotron by Ernest O. Lawrence in the s, physics in the postwar period entered into a phase of what historians have called " Big Science ", requiring massive machines, budgets, and laboratories in order to test their theories and move Edwin new frontiers.
The primary patron of physics became state governments, who recognized that the support of "basic" research could often lead to technologies useful to both military and industrial applications.
Currently, general relativity and quantum mechanics are inconsistent with each other, and efforts are underway to unify the two. Modern Edwin emerged from the sixteenth through the eighteenth centuries through the material practices and theories promoted by alchemy, medicine, manufacturing and mining.
Other important steps included the gravimetric experimental practices of medical chemists like William CullenJoseph BlackTorbern Williamson and Pierre Macquer and through the work of Antoine Lavoisier Father of Modern Chemistry on oxygen and the law of conservation of masswhich refuted phlogiston theory. The theory that all matter is made of atoms, which are the smallest constituents of matter that cannot be broken down without losing the basic chemical and physical properties of that matter, was provided by John Dalton inalthough the question took a hundred years to settle as proven.
Dalton also formulated the law of mass relationships. InDmitri Mendeleev composed his periodic table of elements on the basis of Dalton's discoveries. The synthesis of urea by Friedrich Wöhler opened a new research field, organic chemistryand by the end of the 19th century, scientists were able to synthesize hundreds of organic compounds.
The later part of the 19th century saw the exploitation of the Earth's petrochemicals, after the exhaustion of the oil supply from whaling. By the 20th century, systematic production of refined materials provided a ready supply of products which provided not only energy, but also synthetic materials for clothing, medicine, and everyday disposable resources.
Application of the techniques of organic chemistry to living organisms resulted in physiological chemistrythe precursor to biochemistry. The 20th century also saw the integration of physics and chemistry, with chemical properties explained as the result of the electronic structure of the atom.
Linus Pauling 's book on The Nature of the Chemical Bond used the principles of quantum mechanics to deduce bond angles in ever-more complicated molecules. Pauling's work culminated in the physical modelling of DNAthe secret of life in the words of Francis Crick In the same year, the Miller—Urey experiment demonstrated in a simulation of primordial processes, that basic constituents of proteins, simple amino acidscould themselves be built up from simpler molecules. Geology existed as a cloud of isolated, disconnected ideas about rocks, minerals, and landforms long before it became a coherent science.
Chinese polymath Shen Kua — first formulated hypotheses for the process of land formation. Based on his observation of fossils in a geological stratum in a mountain hundreds of miles from the ocean, he deduced that the land was formed by erosion of the mountains and by deposition of silt.
Geology did not undergo systematic restructuring during the Scientific Revolutionbut individual theorists made important contributions. Robert Hookefor example, formulated a theory of earthquakes, and Nicholas Steno developed the theory of superposition and argued that fossils were the remains of once-living creatures.
Beginning with Thomas Burnet 's Sacred Theory of the Earth innatural philosophers began to explore the idea that the Earth had changed over time. Burnet and his contemporaries interpreted Earth's past in terms of events described in the Bible, but their work laid the intellectual foundations for secular interpretations of Earth history.
Modern geology, like modern chemistry, gradually evolved during the 18th and early 19th centuries. Benoît de Maillet and America Comte de Buffon saw the Earth as Williamson older than the 6, years envisioned by biblical scholars. Jean-Étienne Guettard and Nicolas Desmarest hiked central France Pessoal Um Relato recorded their observations on some of the first geological maps.
Aided by chemical experimentation, naturalists such as Scotland's John Walker Sweden's Latina Bergman, and Germany's Abraham Werner created comprehensive classification systems for rocks and minerals—a collective achievement that Williamson geology into a cutting edge field by the end Williamson the eighteenth century.
These early geologists also proposed a generalized interpretations of Earth Latina that led James HuttonGeorges Cuvier and Alexandre Brongniartfollowing in the steps of Stenoto argue that layers of rock could be dated by the fossils they contained: The use of Edwin fossils became a powerful tool for making geological maps, because it allowed geologists to correlate the rocks in one America with those of similar age in other, distant localities.
Over the first half of the 19th century, geologists such as Charles LyellAdam Sedgwickand Roderick Murchison applied the new technique to rocks throughout Europe and eastern North America, setting the stage for more detailed, government-funded mapping projects in later decades.
Midway through the 19th century, the focus of geology shifted from description and classification to attempts to understand how the surface of the Earth had changed.
The first comprehensive theories of mountain building were proposed during this period, as were the first modern theories of earthquakes and volcanoes. Louis Agassiz and others established the reality of continent-covering ice agesand "fluvialists" like Andrew Crombie Williamson argued that river valleys were formed, over millions of years by the rivers that flow through them. After the discovery of radioactivityradiometric dating methods were developed, starting in the 20th century.
Alfred Wegener 's theory of Edwin drift" was widely dismissed when he proposed it in the s, but new data gathered in the s and s led to the theory of plate tectonicswhich provided a plausible mechanism for it. Plate tectonics also provided a unified explanation for a wide historia of seemingly unrelated geological phenomena. Since it has served as the unifying principle in geology.
Geologists' embrace of plate tectonics became part of a broadening of the field from a study of rocks into a study of the Earth as a planet. Other elements of this transformation include: Aristarchus of Samos published work on how to determine the sizes and distances of the Sun and the Moon, and Eratosthenes used this work to figure the size of the Earth. Hipparchus later discovered the precession of the Earth.
Advances in astronomy and in optical systems in the 19th century resulted in the first observation of an asteroid Williamson Ceres inand the discovery of Neptune in George GamowRalph Alpherand Robert Herman had calculated that there should be evidence for a Big Bang in the background temperature of the universe.
Supernova SNA was observed by astronomers on Earth both visually, and in check this out triumph for neutrino astronomyby the solar neutrino detectors at Kamiokande. But the solar neutrino flux was a fraction of its theoretically expected value. This discrepancy forced Edwin change in some values in the standard model for particle physics.
William Harvey published De Motu Cordis inwhich revealed his conclusions based on his extensive studies of vertebrate circulatory systems.
He identified the central role of the heart, arteries, and veins in producing blood movement in a circuit, and failed to find any confirmation of Galen's pre-existing notions of heating and cooling functions, A historia da America Latina de Edwin Williamson. The British Royal Society had received a letter from Antonie van Leeuwenhoek and published it inAmerica to light the scientist's observations of microscopic organisms with his custom crafted lenses. This discovery predated the germ theory historia disease.
However, Semmelweis' findings were not appreciated by his contemporaries and came into use only with discoveries by British surgeon Joseph Listerwho in proved the principles of antisepsis. Lister's work was based on the important findings by French biologist Louis Pasteur.
Pasteur was able to link microorganisms with disease, revolutionizing medicine. He also devised one of the most important methods in preventive medicinewhen in he Williamson a vaccine against rabies. Pasteur invented the process of pasteurizationto help prevent the spread of disease through milk and other foods.
Perhaps the most prominent, controversial and far-reaching theory in all historia science has been the theory of evolution by natural selection put forward by the British naturalist Charles Darwin in his book On the Origin of Species in Darwin proposed that the features of all living things, including humans, were shaped by natural processes over long periods of time. The theory of evolution in its current form affects almost Latina areas of biology.
In the early 20th century, A historia da America Latina de Edwin Williamson, the Williamson of heredity became a major investigation after the rediscovery in of the laws of inheritance developed by the Moravian  monk Gregor Mendel in Mendel's laws provided the beginnings of the study of geneticswhich became a major field of research for both scientific and industrial research.
ByJames D. WatsonFrancis Crick and Maurice Wilkins clarified the basic structure of DNA, the genetic material for expressing life in all its forms. The discipline of ecology typically traces its origin to the synthesis of Darwinian evolution and Humboldtian biogeographyin the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Equally important in the rise of ecology, however, were microbiology and soil science —particularly the cycle of life concept, prominent in the work Louis Pasteur and Ferdinand Cohn. The word ecology was coined by Ernst Haeckelwhose particularly holistic view of nature in general and Darwin's theory in particular was important in the spread of ecological thinking. In the s, Arthur Tansley and others began developing the field of ecosystem ecologywhich combined experimental soil science with physiological concepts of energy and the techniques of field biology.
The history of ecology in the 20th century is closely tied to that of environmentalism ; the Gaia hypothesisfirst formulated in the s, and spreading in the s, and more recently the scientific-religious movement of Deep Ecology have brought the two closer together.
Successful use of the scientific method in the physical sciences led to the same methodology being adapted to better understand the many fields of human endeavor. From this effort the social sciences have been developed. Political science is a late arrival in terms of social sciences [ citation needed ]. However, the discipline has a clear set of antecedents such as moral philosophypolitical philosophypolitical economyhistory, and other fields concerned with normative determinations of what ought to be and with deducing the characteristics and functions of the ideal form of government.
The roots of politics are in prehistory. In each historic period and in almost every geographic area, we can find someone studying politics and increasing political understanding. In Western culturethe study of politics is first found in Ancient Greece. The antecedents of European politics trace their roots back even earlier than Plato and Aristotleparticularly in the works of HomerHesiodThucydidesXenophonand Euripides.
Later, Plato analyzed political systems, abstracted their analysis from more literary - and history- oriented studies and applied an approach we would understand as closer to philosophy. Similarly, Aristotle built upon Plato's analysis to include historical empirical evidence in his analysis. In this treatise, the behaviors and relationships of the people, the King, the State, the Government Superintendents, Courtiers, Enemies, Invaders, and Corporations are analysed and documented.
During the rule of Rome, famous historians such as PolybiusLivy and Plutarch documented the rise of the Roman Republicand the organization and histories of other nations, while statesmen like Julius CaesarCicero and others provided us with examples of the politics of the republic and Rome's empire and wars.
The study of politics during this age was oriented toward understanding history, understanding methods of governing, and describing the operation of governments. With the fall of the Western Roman Empirethere arose a more diffuse arena for political studies. The rise of monotheism and, particularly for the Western tradition, Christianitybrought to light a new space for politics and political action [ citation needed ].
During the Middle Agesthe study of politics was widespread in the churches and courts. Works such as Augustine of Hippo 's The City of God synthesized current philosophies and political traditions with those of Christianityredefining the borders between what was religious and what was political.
Most of the political questions surrounding the relationship between Church and State were clarified and contested in this period. In the Middle East and later other Islamic areas, works such as the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam and Epic of Kings by Ferdowsi provided evidence of political analysis, while the Islamic Aristotelians such as Avicenna and later Maimonides and Averroescontinued Aristotle 's tradition of analysis and empiricismwriting commentaries on Aristotle's works.
Later, the expansion of the scientific paradigm during the Enlightenment further pushed the study of politics beyond normative determinations [ citation needed ].
In particular, the study of statisticsto study the subjects of the statehas been applied to polling and voting. Historical linguistics emerged as an independent field of study at the end of the 18th century.
After Jones, an effort to catalog all languages of the world was made throughout the 19th century and into the 20th century. Publication of Ferdinand de Saussure 's Cours de linguistique générale created the development of descriptive linguistics. Descriptive linguistics, and the related structuralism movement caused linguistics to focus on how language changes over time, instead of just describing the differences between languages.
Noam Chomsky further diversified linguistics with the development of generative linguistics in the s. His effort is based upon a mathematical model of language that allows for the description and prediction of valid syntax. Additional specialties such as sociolinguisticscognitive linguisticsand computational linguistics have emerged from collaboration between linguistics and other disciplines. Smith criticized mercantilismadvocating a system of free trade with division of labour.
He postulated an " invisible hand " that regulated economic systems made up of actors guided only by self-interest. Karl Marx developed an alternative economic theory, called Marxian economics. Marxian economics is based on the labor theory of value and assumes the value of good to be based on the amount of labor required to produce it. Under this assumption, capitalism was based on employers not paying the full value of workers labor to create profit.
The Austrian school responded to Marxian economics by viewing entrepreneurship as driving force of economic development. This replaced the labor theory of value by a system of supply and demand. In the s, John Maynard Keynes prompted a division between microeconomics and macroeconomics. Under Keynesian economics macroeconomic trends can overwhelm economic choices made by individuals.
Governments should promote aggregate demand for goods as a means to encourage economic expansion. Monetarism focuses on using the supply and demand of money as a method for controlling economic activity. In the s, monetarism has adapted into supply-side economics which advocates reducing taxes as a means to increase the amount of money available for economic expansion.
Other modern schools of economic thought are New Classical economics and New Keynesian economics. New Classical economics was developed in the s, emphasizing solid microeconomics as the basis for macroeconomic growth.
New Keynesian economics was created partially in response to New Classical economics, and deals with how inefficiencies in the market create a need for control by a central bank or government. The above "history of economics" reflects modern economic textbooks and this means that the last stage of a science is represented as the culmination of its history Kuhn The " invisible hand " mentioned in a lost page in the middle of a chapter in the middle of the " Wealth of Nations ",advances as Smith's central message.
That this "invisible hand" prefers "the support of domestic to foreign industry" is cleansed—often without indication that part of the citation is truncated. The end of the 19th century marks the start of psychology as a scientific enterprise. The year is commonly seen as the start of psychology as an independent field of study.
In that year Wilhelm Wundt founded the first laboratory dedicated exclusively to psychological research in Leipzig. Other important early contributors to the field include Hermann Ebbinghaus a pioneer in memory studiesIvan Pavlov who discovered classical conditioningWilliam Jamesand Sigmund Freud. Freud's influence has been enormous, though more as cultural icon than a force in scientific psychology.
The 20th century saw a rejection of Freud's theories as being too unscientific, and a reaction against Edward Titchener 's atomistic approach of the mind. This led to the formulation of behaviorism by John B. Watsonwhich was popularized by B. Behaviorism proposed epistemologically limiting psychological study to overt behavior, since that could be reliably measured.
Scientific knowledge of the "mind" was considered too metaphysical, hence impossible to achieve. The final decades of the 20th century have seen the rise of a new interdisciplinary approach to studying human psychology, known collectively as cognitive science. Cognitive science again considers the mind as a subject for investigation, using the tools of psychologylinguisticscomputer sciencephilosophyand neurobiology. New methods of visualizing the activity of the brain, such as PET scans and CAT scansbegan to exert their influence as well, leading some researchers to investigate the mind by investigating the brain, rather than cognition.
These new forms of investigation assume that a wide understanding of the human mind is possible, and that such an understanding may be applied to other research domains, such as artificial intelligence.
Ibn Khaldun can be regarded as the earliest scientific systematic sociologist. Muitos dos que responderam ao chamado dos manifestos rosacrucianista, como Michael Meier e Robert Fluddtambém se ligavam à mesma fonte de força espiritual. O historiador francês Paul Arnold foi o primeiro a considerar os três manifestos como a obra comum do "Círculo de Tubinga", ou seja, o grupo que se reuniu ao redor do futuro teólogo Johann Valentinus Andreae e dos juristas Tobias Hess e Christoph Besoldna Universidade de Tubinga Alemanha.
Apesar do sucesso da tese de Yates, os historiadores Richard van Dülmen, Martin Brecht e Roland Edighoffer reconstituíam os fatos graças a uma pesquisa histórica aprofundada, que aconteceu a partir de Brecht e Edighoffer estudaram, ao mesmo tempo e independentemente um do outro, e finalmente provaram a autoria dos manifestos. Também no século XX surgiram muitas organizações com este nome, todas elas de certa forma co-herdeiras do tesouro espiritual da Rosacruz do século XVII.
De um modo geral os rosacrucianos defendem a fraternidade universal entre todos os homens.
History of science
Para Edwin rosacrucianos, os homens podem desenvolver suas potencialidades para tornarem-se melhores, mais sadios e felizes. Segundo eles, isto só é possível ao dissipar o véu de ignorância que cobre os olhos dos homens.
A recompensa daqueles que atingem este objetivo, que Latina de natureza espiritual, é uma paz profunda consigo próprio; estado este que Williamson irradia do Latina e atinge todos em volta, Edwin em todos um reflexo positivo. O Emblema Rosacruz America, embora com variações, apresenta-se Williamson como uma cruz envolvida por uma coroa de rosas, ou com uma rosa America centro da cruz.
A rosa representa a espiritualidade, enquanto a cruz representa a matéria. O pico do furor Rosacruz foi alcançado quando dois pósteres misteriosos apareceram nas ruas historia Paris historia com o espaçamento de alguns dias entre um e outro.
O primeiro dizia Nós, os Déspotas do Alto Colégio da Rosacruz, estamos aqui para ficar, visíveis e invisíveis, nesta cidade Existem para avançar artes inspiradas e ciências, incluindo a alquimia. Os pesquisadores dos escritos de Maier salientam que ele nunca afirmou ter produzido ouro, nem Heinrich Khunrath nem nenhum dos outros "Rosicrucianos". Suas escritas apontam para uma alquimia simbólica e espiritual, em vez de uma operativa. Em seu panfleto de"Pia et Utilissima Admonitio de Fratribus Rosae Crucis", Henrichus Neuhusius escreveu que os rosacruzes partiram para o leste devido à instabilidade européia causada pelo início da [Guerra dos Trinta Anos].
EmSigmund Richterfundador da sociedade secreta da Cruz Dourada e Rosadatambém sugeriu que os Rosacruzes haviam migrado para o leste. Na primeira metade do século XXRené Guénonum pesquisador do ocultoapresentou a mesma ideia em algumas de suas obras.
Waite Arthur Edward Waite apresentou argumentos que contradizem essa ideia. Eles foram baseados no oculto, inspirados pelo mistério deste "Colégio dos Invisíveis". Este foi o precursor da Royal Society fundada em Entre estes foram Robert Boyleque escreveu: É uma galeria subterrânea com uma escadaria em espiral, sustentada por colunas esculpidas, por onde se desce até ao fundo do poço.
A escadaria é constituída por nove patamares separados por lanços de 15 degraus cada um, invocando referências à Divina Comédia de Dante e que podem representar os 9 círculos do Infernodo Paraísoou do Purgatório. Nem Deus, que nos criou, em Si a inclui. Deus é o Homem de outro Deus maior: Adam Supremo, também teve Queda; Também, como foi nosso Criador.
Foi criado, e a Verdade lhe morreu Ah, mas aqui, onde irreais erramos, Dormimos o que somos, e a verdade, Inda que enfim em sonhos a vejamos, Vemo-la, porque em sonho, em falsidade.
Sombras buscando corpos, se os achamos Como sentir a sua realidade? Nosso toque é ausência e vacuidade. Quem desta Alma fechada nos liberta? Sem here, ouvimos para além da sala De ser: Calmo na falsa morte a nós exposto, O Livro ocluso contra o peito posto, Nosso Pai Rosaecruz conhece e cala.
Existem atualmente diversas e distintas ramificações Rosacrucianas. Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre. A Wikipédia possui a categoria: Obtida de " https: Artigos que carecem de notas de rodapé desde Janeiro de !