There are contradictory allegations. Some suggest that Coustos revealed PORTUGAL rituals and Masonic secrets to save HISTORIA life, but others suggest that he would squabble and that he never broke his Masonic vows, as Hiram Abif never did .
He was tried on 21st Julyin the Church of Saint Domingos Convent, accused of being a protestant and a heretic, also of offending the Portuguese Catholics by founding a Masonic lodge. He was found guilty, but invited to disavow his actions under the promise of being relieved from the death penalty. He was condemned to five years of forced labour in the galleys and signed a declaration obliging him not to reveal what really happened during imprisonment. He transmitted to the King of Portugal, D, HISTORIA DE PORTUGAL.
Coustos was liberated in Octoberand sent back to England on board of the ship The Diamond. In London, he broke his imposed promise of silence and in HISTORIA a book, The Unparalleled Sufferings PORTUGAL John Coustos, in which he denounced, PORTUGAL the aid of several illustrations, the abuses inflicted to him PORTUGAL his imprisonment. It has been asserted that this Papal Bull was issued at the request of the kings of Spain and Naples.
In any event the Papal Bull was supported by royal decrees of both monarchs, suppressing freemasonry in both countries and urging the Holly Officium to boost vigilance and persecution. Portuguese freemasonry was free from persecution during the decadeunder the government of the Marquis of Pombal.
Borges Grainha recalls that during the Pombal government freemasons were no longer persecuted and that no reference to them can be found in the relevant Inquisition lists and police reports. Freemasonry acquired strength and vigour and expanded its membership within the Army, the aristocracy and the erudite classes. José I, frequented aristocratic circles very close to the Grand Lodge of England. However no documental proof is available to show whether he became a member there .
However there can be no doubt that, by his recruitment of high-ranking officials, nobles and important people from protestant countries to assist the army, industry and other economic sectors, he contributed indirectly to the increase of lodges and brethren in Portugal.
The conditions for a masonic revival in Portugal gained impetus with the arrival in Lisbon of the Count Schaumburg de Lippe, a German noble and Mason, to command and reorganize the Portuguese army. Pombal had recruited the Count on the basis of his experience in England. By the Count had helped to create two military lodges in Elvas and Valença. The impressive growth of freemasonry under Marquis of Pombalcoincided with the expulsion of the Order of Jesus from Portugal, a religious order that then had the monopoly of education and also had immense wealth.
In this regard there is nothing to implicate the Portuguese Brotherhood in any involvement in the installation of the absolute monarchy in Portugal. Masons reputedly were members of different political parties.
This embryonic organization of Portuguese freemasonry did not contest the legitimacy of the political power: In fact it applauded submission to the appointed king, which since has always been the official position of the Grand Lodge of England concerning the relationship that should exist between freemasonry and the authorities. This issue has become a legendary landmark of the Order. The common claim that Pombal was a bloodthirsty persecutor of Portuguese Catholics, as Church authorities and historians claim, cannot be accepted as accurate.
José I died on 24th February his daughter, D.
A Formação de Portugal
Maria I, succeed him as Queen. With her accession to power the religious prejudice and persecution of freemasonry returned and freemasonry again became the declared enemy of the Church, HISTORIA DE PORTUGAL. The Police Chief, Pina Manique, was a privileged instrument in the oppression being inflicted on the Brotherhood.
Pina Manique was profoundly opposed to the Enlightenment and rejected the ideas of the French Revolution that began to spread around Europe.
He considered those ideas to be a threat to the Portuguese Crown and to Catholic monarchies in general. Pina Manique believed that if he could prevent those ideas from spreading, if freemasons could be brought to instant justice and if the free circulation of books and newspapers was censored, the enlightenment could be defeated . During the 25 years that he headed the PORTUGAL, a systematic persecution was conducted against Masonic lodges in Lisbon, HISTORIA, Coimbra, Valença, Funchal and Oporto.
The years were the toughest period of repression, leading to the detention of the secretary of Navy, Martinho de Melo e Castro, the second Marquis of Pombal and PORTUGAL Judge on India and Mina, José de Noronha. These dreadful PORTUGAL helped to break up many of the lodges. Masons were forced to disguise their activities and more info them from the close surveillance of PORTUGAL police.
It is reported for instance PORTUGAL in a masonic meeting held on board the frigate Fenix PORTUGAL, afloat on the Tagus River, was attended by Portuguese, HISTORIA and French masons. This Fenix lodge would give birth later to several other lodges, including for example The Fortressof which José Liberato Freire de Carvalho PORTUGAL a member, who became one of the first Portuguese Grand Masters.
The disembarking of an expeditionary contingent of the British Army in Julyin support of the Portuguese resistance against an attempted French occupation, played a decisive role in a fresh rebirth of Freemasonry in Portugal.
This rebirth was initiated by the creation of four British lodges in Lisbon three of them linked to British regiments and the fourth comprising British and Portuguese officials. These lodges, recalls Oliveira Marques, were registered under the Grand Lodge of England with the numbers 94,and This last one was to have a symbolic meaning, because when Portuguese freemasonry became independent it became Lodge number 1 with the name Union.
It is also believed that several irregular lodges functioned in various other locations in Portugal, with German, British and other foreigners as members. After the return of the Portuguese nobles and intellectuals who had been exiled in France, Portuguese Freemasonry concentrated its efforts around the French rite of the Grand Orient of France.
The GOF also removed the Bible as one of the three obligatory great lights in every lodge. This led, as I will mention later, to the expulsion of the Portuguese Obedience from Regular freemasonry, when the United Grand Lodge of England cancelled its recognition, a situation that continues in the 20 th Century.
Until other lodges were created by gatherings of Army officials, merchants, industrialists, clerics and leading intellectuals like Ribeiro Sanches, Avelar Brotero, Abbey Correia da Serra Filinto Elísio and Domingos Vandelli. On the road to an autonomous Obedience.
The transition of freemasonry from the 18 th to the 19 th Century made it imperative to convert the Craft from a collection of widely dispersed individual lodges into a more integrated organization.
In a Masonic meeting was held at a place called Calvario, in Lisbon, in the palace of General Gomes Freire de Andrade, a freemason born and initiated abroad. As the General was overseas at the time, Father José Joaquim Monteiro de Carvalho, a Scottish Knight, 11 th Degree of the hierarchy of freemasonry, chaired the meeting of masons representing the different lodges. During the discussions a complete consensus was achieved for the urgent creation of a Grand Lodge or a Grand Orient that could be recognized by international freemasonry.
They met with Rodrigo Sousa Coutinho, the secretary of the Treasury, from whom they obtained a promise that Portuguese freemasonry would not be persecuted if constituted as a national body.
With this intention Hipólito José da Costa  travelled to London, where he successfully negotiated and obtained the recognition of Portuguese freemasonry as a Grand Lodge in its own right, called Grande Oriente Lusitano. Historians praise the influence of the Duke of Sussex in this process, through his connections with the Grand Lodge of England . British texts refer to this episode and also record the existence of four lodges in Portugal that assembled in May as a Grand Lodge of Lisbon or Portugal .
The Grand Lodge of England Ancient approved the Portuguese petition and both parties signed a treaty of recognition. In essence the treaty stated that the Portuguese lodges would conform to the old constitutions and traditions of the Order as recognised by the Grand Lodge of England. It also provided that a legal representative of the Mother-Lodge would be nominated to Lisbon and that a representative of the Portuguese Grand Lodge would be nominated to the Grand Lodge of England.
Finally it provided that the brethren of both Grand Lodges would retain identical Masonic privileges, PORTUGAL. The treaty was signed on 9th May Similar PORTUGAL were then taken tentatively with the Grand Orient of France.
On 25 PORTUGAL April a treaty of friendship was signed between PORTUGAL two Grand Orients, but the French ratification was delayed sine diethe reasons for which are still unclear.
The treaty with France therefore had no real effect. When the emissary of Portuguese freemasonry returned to Portugal, he was surprisingly detained and the documents he carried were confiscated. In the summer of a Diet or formal Masonic assembly took place in Lisbon, when the Grand Lodge of Portugal was installed with the title of the Grand Oriente Lusitanounder the regular patent of from the Grand Lodge of England . He was a grandson of the Marquis of Pombal, with the symbolic name of Egas Moniz.
Two years later, in JulyPORTUGAL, the PORTUGAL Portuguese Masonic Constitution was finalized, comprising articles grouped in fourteen chapters . The Constitution created a legislative system formed by two chambers, a Chamber of Worshipful Masters and a Chamber of Representatives.
The Chamber of Representatives assumed the other two powers, the executive and the judiciary. The delegates of eight Lodges voted favourably on the Constitution: The Masonic Constitution of introduced a bi-cameral PORTUGAL of legislation that was also adopted by succeeding Portuguese Constitutions, including the Constitutional Charter of and the Constitutions ofand However the Democratic Constitution ofwhich completed the re-establishment of the Portuguese democracy that followed the Carnation Revolution HISTORIAreinstituted the traditional single chamber of legislative power that had been pursued briefly by the Constitution of The Scottish rite in its complete formulation of 33 Degrees was introduced three years later, inat the suggestion of Silva Carvalho, Worshipful Master of Lodge Check this out. Summarizing what has been said, the first seventy years of Portuguese freemasonry was characterized by the subordination of the Portuguese masonry to the Grand Lodge of HISTORIA, in the form of an independent district.
This can be HISTORIA by the limited number of Master masons exalted and also for reasons of legitimacy in the transmission of Masonic regularity . During a substantial part of this period Masonic PORTUGAL were severely persecuted and freemasons could only fulfil their Masonic duties under the strictest clandestine conditions. Freemasonry in Portugal, as in other places in Europe, was under suspicion from absolute monarchies and from the Catholic Church, because these PORTUGAL both considered Freemasonry to http://pressnewz.info/cincias-sociais/direito-da-antidiscriminacao.php a focus of PORTUGAL against them.
In Portugal, Freemasonry played an PORTUGAL role as a focus of liberal ideas and later of revolutionary uprising. The three French invasions significantly encouraged the widening of liberal ideas among the aristocracy, the clergy and the bourgeoisie. The support that freemasonry received from the Marquis of Pombal, which cannot be denied, was later to be used against freemasonry as an argument that supposedly proved the complicity of the Brotherhood in the anti-Catholic activities attributed to the Marquis and in the expulsion of Jesuits of the Order of the Jesus.
Portuguese freemasonry, as were all the Southern European fraternities, PORTUGAL, came to be positively connected with the separation of the Church from the State in matters concerned with todas SINTESE AVALIACAO PARTICIPATIVA DE POLITICAS PUBLICAS problema, bureaucracy and state affairs in general. The influence of Jacobinism in Portuguese Freemasonry, PORTUGAL.
In the historical struggle of the Catholic Church and Catholic Monarchs with the partisans of the French Revolution, there was a symbolic episode with the uprising in of the farmers of PORTUGAL, in the west of France, against the Jacobinsthe confessed enemies of the Catholic Church and Robespierre followers.
Until and the revival of the Grand Terror, the Catholic Church and freemasonry were banned by the leaders of the French Revolution as threats PORTUGAL the state. Freemasonry went into darkness, waiting for better days. Its activities only gained renewed strength under Directory rule of HISTORIA Napoleon considered the tremendous influence of the Church over the French people, he soon realised that normal relations with the Pope and the Catholic Church had to be re-established swiftly.
The Church had been offended by the savagery of the Terror. The underlying rationale was that the Catholic Church had an institutional role in French society, which established a form of natural hierarchy and hence the subordination of the several classes, a situation that needed to be restored.
However, at the same time the Church and its dignitaries should be prevented from exerting too much power. So, in an endeavour to counterbalance the resurging power of the Catholic Church, Napoleon tolerated and favoured the re-emergence of Freemasonry, encouraging some of the closest members of his family to join the Brotherhood . Napoleon designated Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacères, a lawyer and a fervent mason, as his 2 nd Consul. Cambacères counselled him to use the Fraternity to his own benefit instead of suppressing it, as also was the key recommendation of the secret police.
Cambacères used his influence in the Freemasonry to unite the autonomous Scottish Lodges with those under the jurisdiction of the Grand Orient of Francefederating them through him and thus affiliating them to the service of the Emperor and the Empire.
It is problematic whether Napoleon himself was a mason. There is a tale that says he was initiated in Malta inwhen the Mediterranean island was under French occupation. Another source suggests that he was been initiated in a military lodge in Egypt. What is accepted is that after all French lodges worked with a strict veneration of Napoleon, which was expressed by a bust of the Emperor presiding over all of the ceremonies, occupying a similar position to the traditional three great lights of Freemasonry.
Napoleon sent some divisions of his army to Portugal to enforce control of the ports. Authority over Portugal was empowered in a Commission of Regency formed by seven members. The Portuguese authorities received General Junot respectfully. It seems that General Junot received them cordially, planning to use the Portuguese masons in his own interests . Some time later Junot managed to convince the masons of a lodge to hang a portrait of Napoleon in it, instead of a portrait of the Prince Regent exiled in Brazil.
Most of the masons considered this suggestion outrageous increased their antagonism to French arrogance. This proposal fell like a bomb amongst the Brotherhood and was unanimously defeated by the Council of the Grand Orient . This incident acted like a fuse to appeals among Portuguese liberals and nationalists for a revolt against the French occupiers, as a result of which Junot gave orders to the Chief of Police to persecute the freemasons and dissolve their lodges.
However, although Junot was pushed to the Portuguese border by an allied Luso-British army, a new invasion took place in under the command of General Soult, another Bonaparte General. Between and a new wave of persecutions and arrests assailed freemasonry. The false accusation leading to their imprisonment was that they were partisans of the French occupation and that their revolutionary ideals had made the entry of the Massena army into Portugal much easier.
The Duke of Sussex, a son of George III, who had been living in Lisbon sincehelped to organize the resistance against the French occupation force and interceded for the release of detained masons, involving the Grand Lodge of England in his efforts.
At the end of December the English freemasons organized a Masonic parade in support of the Portuguese brethren. From British protectorate to the triumph of liberal ideals: From the beginning he tolerated Masonic activities and allowed lodges to multiply, which favoured the intake of new brethren. In this last one, According to Borges Grainha, José Andrade Corvo de Camões, captain of infantry, was initiated in Virtude and was responsible for the recruitment of new brethren.
A new lodge was created in Santarém, named Filantropiaformed by Army officials from infantry and cavalry, as was another in Torres Novas. Two other lodges were established in Coimbra and Oporto. In Brazil, a great Masonic activity was unrolled during the exile of Portuguese monarchs.
In a Brazilian Grand Orient was installed restricted to four lodges: The creation of the Grand Lodge of Brazil represented the independence of the Brazilian freemasonry from the superintendence of the Grande Oriente Lusitanoreivindicated, for a long time, by the Brazilian freemasons.
Pedro, son of King D. With this gesture, D. Pedro assumed, symbolically, the quality and the sufferings of the Brazilians, oppressed by the Portuguese. Three days later, he was exalted to Master Mason . Brazilian freemasonry has acquired its independence and was in its way to help his people to gain independence. The General was born in Vienna in and was member of the same lodge that initiated Amadeus Mozart, which according to José Manuel Anes belonged to the German rite of the Strict Observation .
Inafter returning from Russia, he was elected as the Grand Master of Portuguese Freemasonry and became the driving force of the liberal and nationalistic conspiracy against the autocratic rule of Beresford. Gomes Freire de Andrade was detained and found guilty of conspiracy. By order of Marshal Beresford he was hanged on the scaffold in the Tower of St. The other 11 conspirators suffered a similar fate in Campo de SantanaSantana Field, a location in the centre of Lisbon that has become a memorial to the liberal uprisings.
Borges Grainha mentions that the day before the execution, Robert Haddock, an English colonel and a mason, visited the Grand Master and offered him an opportunity to escape, but he refused it. Ina monument was erected on the precise spot where the Grand Master was hanged. He also is remembered as the most eminent martyr in Portuguese freemasonry and his name is accredited to one of the most distinguished orders of Regular Portuguese freemasonry GLRP-L.
The repression of was followed in by a warrant from King D. The warrant stated that it would be considered a heinous crime to be a member of a secret society, which consequently was forbidden and would be subject to the application of the severest penalties, including the confiscation of personal goods and the death penalty .
As a consequence Portuguese freemasonry entered a new period of operations that was absolutely clandestine, when most of the lodges suspended their activities. The Grand Lodge created a unique lodge, Segurança Regeneradora, with the role of uniting all clandestine lodges. As mentioned earlier, freemasonry was directly involved in the liberal struggles of that epoch, with the active support of its most distinguished officials and dignitaries. All open-minded Portuguese citizens and freemasons enthusiastically supported the thought of freedom that was cherished by the liberals, which contributed substantially to the spread of the ideas of liberalism, a constitutional monarchy and the limitation of absolute power.
Even though it was not a Masonic organization some of their members were masons, including Cunha Sotto Maior and Silva Carvalho who later became Grand Masters of Portuguese freemasonry, in and .
In Oporto on 24 th Augustthe liberal revolution exploded triumphantly. Its mission was to govern Portugal during the absence of the legitimate King, who continued in exile in Brazil. The Committee had the task of assembling the Cortesthe Constitutional Assembly comprising all branches of the legislature, to discuss and approve a new liberal Constitution that would eliminate dictatorship.
The revolution spread across the country until the rebels successfully entered Lisbon on 15 th Septembereasing the transfer of power from a dictatorship to liberalism . He swore in the Assembly and signed the new Constitution promulgated on 23rd September The Masonic Diet that elected Cunha Souto Maior as Grand Master used the opportunity to modify and review the Masonic Constitution ofbringing it into accord with more liberal ideals.
In spite of its success, the Constitutional regime installed in did not remain for long, HISTORIA.
O Último Condenado à Morte em Portugal 2018
The effervescent struggle between the main political factions and the PORTUGAL that spilled over political divides within the PORTUGAL camp together brought about the check this out of the fragile liberal monarchy.
However, thanks to the helpful efforts of some of the HISTORIA supporters of absolutism, including Infant D, HISTORIA DE PORTUGAL. Miguel and Queen Carlota Joaquina, the effects of the http://pressnewz.info/quimica/plano-de-aula-de-ensino-religioso.php were diminished. After the counter-revolution ofKing D. On 30th April the Infant D. Miguel besieged the HISTORIA in Paço de Bempostasaying that his action was justified because the freemasons wanted to assassinate the King.
This was a pretext to secure power and achieve the plans of the absolutist party. Having assumed power the usurper proclaimed himself as the legitimate heir to the crown, promising to free any member of a secret society who renounced his membership before 20 th Junethreatening to impose severe penalties on any who refused to comply. During that period Masonic activities were only continued in Terceira Island in the Azores, which retained allegiance to the liberal Constitution and to the King.
Freemasons were forced into exile in England and France. Meanwhile the Catholic clerics were content to carry on the despicable role of provoking hatred against freemasonry. Pedro IV, who was a son of D. His nomination was an act of political pragmatism, providing a way for liberals and Brazilians to legitimise the Brazilian struggle for independence.
In the Azores liberal troops and supporters of liberalism assembled and organised a liberal army with the goal of freeing Portugal from absolutism and deposing D.
Miguel who had usurped the throne. The Duke of Saldanha, who also was a mason, led the liberal army.
Some days later the legitimate heir, PORTUGAL. Pedro IV, returned from Brazil and entered Lisbon, where he was cheered as the lawful successor of the Portuguese realm. At the Convention of Evora Monte inthe King decreed all religious orders existing in Portugal to be suspended and approved the reestablishment of the liberal Constitutional Charter that D. Portuguese freemasonry thus found a quiet new environment in which its elected King was a distinguished liberal and one of its foremost figures.
The triumph HISTORIA liberalism and the establishment of continue reading constitutional monarchy in Portugal coincided with the resumption PORTUGAL liberty, but it also was a period of organizational dissent in the government of Portuguese freemasonry.
The Portuguese emigrants, when in exile, had elected two Grand Masters as their leaders, José da Silva Carvalho and the Duke of Saldanha, the hero of liberation, the latter having been acclaimed by those exiled in France. On their return to Portugal the two groups of freemasons retained their individual Grand Orients with their respective Grand Masters. PORTUGAL Grainha argues and I quote: Maria I called to form government, one of the Grand Masters usually held office and the others become leaders of the opposition.
It is difficult to gain an accurate picture of the activities supported by the different Orients under which Portuguese freemasonry PORTUGAL segregated untilbecause PORTUGAL of the credible historical sources are missing. A contributing factor is that divisions within each Orient changed frequently, whilst some lodges even passed from one Orient to another over the course of time .
It is well documented in the Manifesto of José J, HISTORIA DE PORTUGAL. Borges Grainha mentions that, in a Masonic Diet inMoura Coutinho approved a new Constitution as a substitute for the previous one, HISTORIA DE PORTUGAL. However Costa Cabral, while Grand Master during his term in the Ministry of Justice and with the support of the military lodges he controlled, managed to restore the Charter agreed to by D.
Pedro IV and proclaimed in Oporto on 27 th January. According to Oliveira Marques after the Grande Oriente Lusitano was created inseveral disagreements occurred, after which several Grand Lodges were created.
The profusion of Orients arose as a result of the piecemeal multiplication and expansion of Masonic activities all over the country. In there were 80 masonic lodges in full activity in Portugal. The uniting of the Orients was achieved on 30 th Octoberwhen the Count of Parati was elected as Grand Master, according to a suggestion of the writer and then Minister of Navy, Mendes Leal.
For half a century Masonic unity was possible. These decades were a magnificent period of rebuilding in Portuguese freemasonry, when intellectuals came into prominence on the Portuguese scene all largely attributable to the human qualities of those appointed as Grand Masters. Membership in freemasonry increased substantially during that time. During those years the activities of freemasonry highlighted both the fundamental and the general goals for progress and human development, which were attributed to the Enlightenment from its beginning.
It is to this philosophical doctrine that freemasonry owes its visibility and has credibility within the intellectual environment and educated European classes. The following have been identified as the main developments in which freemasonry participated, both individually and as a group: Some of these policies were the result of the collective work of Masonic lodges, but in all honesty the fundamental contribution should be attributed to individuals.
By their positions, sound Masonic education and integrity, individuals implanted into these activities the universal patterns of progress and Human improvement that are always linked with unity and Masonic fraternity.
Despite from these great achievements, freemasonry as a whole could not always resist the temptation to lead and become involved in the main liberal movements that characterise the transition from the 18 th Century to the 19 th.
When liberalism seemed triumphant, leading members of the Brotherhood did not refrain from becoming involved, with the Orients and lodges under their jurisdiction, in partisanship and the rise and fall of governments. It is difficult to give a direct answer to the question whether Freemasonry should or should not be considered as the driving force behind revolutionary liberalism in Portugal, in the sense that it is reputed to be the cradle of jacobinism .
In broad terms, I would agree with Maria da Graça Silva Dias  that Portuguese freemasonry has not followed a single line of development. Although this involvement contravenes one of the mandates of our Obedience, which forbids any political or religious discussion between freemasons in lodge, one should not minimize the contribution that freemasonry made in presenting its face to the world.
In other words we should seek to minimise the chasm of misunderstanding that still exists between speculative freemasonry and the common citizens, which makes them suspicious of the intentions that activate masons and freemasonry in the profane world. This aspect is very evident in the history of Portuguese freemasonry, because of the traditional Portuguese conservatism and close-mindedness.
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